NVIDIA DLSS 2.0:AI 渲染领域的一大步

由 Andrew Burnes 发表于 2020年3月23日 | Featured Stories GeForce RTX GPUs NVIDIA DLSS NVIDIA RTX

人工智能正在引发一场游戏革命,从游戏内的物理动画模拟到实时渲染和 AI 增强的直播功能,均有涉及。借助深度学习超级采样(DLSS)技术,NVIDIA 开始通过基于 AI 的超高分辨率重新定义实时渲染,即渲染更少的像素,然后使用 AI 构建更清晰、更高分辨率的图像。随着新版 DLSS 2.0 的推出,我们在实现这一愿景方面取得了重大进展。

DLSS 2.0 由 GeForce RTX GPU 上的专用 AI 处理器(称为 Tensor Core)提供支持,是一个经过改进的全新深度学习神经网络,能够提高帧速率,同时生成精美、清晰的游戏图像。DLSS 2.0 为玩家提供了充足的性能,有助于最大化光线追踪设置,并提高输出分辨率。

DLSS 2.0 在原始版本的基础上进行了以下增强:

  • 出色的图像质量:DLSS 2.0 可在仅渲染四分之一到半数像素的前提下,提供与原始分辨率相媲美的画质。其采用全新时间反馈技术,能够实现更清晰的图像细节,同时提高帧与帧之间的稳定性。

  • 在不同RTX 显卡和分辨率上均具有出色的扩展性:全新 AI 网络能够更高效地使用 Tensor Cores,执行速度比原始版本快一倍。这不仅有助于提高帧率,还可消除以前显卡、设置和分辨率上的限制。

  • 一个适用于所有游戏的网络:原始 DLSS 需要针对每个新游戏训练 AI 网络。DLSS 2.0 则使用非特定于某一游戏的内容开展训练,从而能够提供一个跨游戏使用的通用网络。这意味着游戏集成更快,最终将能支持更多 DLSS 游戏。

  • 自定义化选项:DLSS 2.0 为用户提供“质量”(Quality)、“平衡”(Balanced) 和“性能”(Performance) 这 3 种画质模式来控制游戏的内部渲染分辨率;启用“性能”(Performance) 模式后,可实现高达 4 倍的超高分辨率(即从 1080p 到 4K)。这意味着用户选择更丰富,性能提升更显著。

“飞向月球 (Deliver Us The Moon)”:DLSS 2.0 在大幅提升性能的同时,还能保持画质,甚至于在某些情况下提升画质。

今日,”机械战士5:雇佣兵 (Mechwarrior 5: Mercenaries)“已加入”飞向月球 (Deliver Us The Moon)”与 ”德军总部:新血脉 (Wolfenstein:Youngblood)” 阵营,支持 NVIDIA DLSS 2.0; 3 月 26 日,我们还将通过游戏补丁的形式将其引入到“控制 (Control)”中。此外,DLSS 2.0 现已通过“DLSS 开发者计划”面向 虚幻4引擎开发者提供支持,此举将加速其在这款全球大热游戏引擎中的部署。如果您是开发者,请前往此处了解详情。

DLSS 2.0 - Under the Hood

Using our Neural Graphics Framework, NGX, the DLSS deep neural network is trained on a NVIDIA DGX-powered supercomputer.

DLSS 2.0 has two primary inputs into the AI network:

  1. Low resolution, aliased images rendered by the game engine
  2. Low resolution, motion vectors from the same images -- also generated by the game engine

Motion vectors tell us which direction objects in the scene are moving from frame to frame. We can apply these vectors to the previous high resolution output to estimate what the next frame will look like. We refer to this process as ‘temporal feedback,’ as it uses history to inform the future.

The NVIDIA DLSS 2.0 Architecture

A special type of AI network, called a convolutional autoencoder, takes the low resolution current frame, and the high resolution previous frame, to determine on a pixel-by-pixel basis how to generate a higher quality current frame.

During the training process, the output image is compared to an offline rendered, ultra-high quality 16K reference image, and the difference is communicated back into the network so that it can continue to learn and improve its results. This process is repeated tens of thousands of times on the supercomputer until the network reliably outputs high quality, high resolution images.

Once the network is trained, NGX delivers the AI model to your GeForce RTX PC or laptop via Game Ready Drivers and OTA updates. With Turing’s Tensor Cores delivering up to 110 teraflops of dedicated AI horsepower, the DLSS network can be run in real-time simultaneously with an intensive 3D game. This simply wasn’t possible before Turing and Tensor Cores.

DLSS 2.0 In Action

Let’s take a look at how DLSS 2.0 improves performance and image quality in each of the first four games to implement the technology: Control, Deliver Us The Moon, MechWarrior 5: Mercenaries, and Wolfenstein: Youngblood.

Control

Remedy Entertainment’s Control was one of 2019’s best single-player games, and also one of its most advanced, with a suite of ray-traced effects that took its graphical fidelity to new heights.  

Control originally launched with a prior version of DLSS that used an image processing algorithm to boost frame rates by over 70%. On March 26th, Remedy is releasing an update that adds new story-based downloadable content along with the latest AI-powered DLSS 2.0.

“With Control, we set out to create a visually stunning and immersive world,” said Mika Vehkala, Director of Technology at Remedy Entertainment. “Real-time ray tracing and NVIDIA DLSS made Control look amazing at launch, and upgrading to DLSS 2.0 made the game’s image quality better than ever.”

At 1920x1080 and 2560x1440, DLSS 2.0’s Quality mode boosts performance by up to 76% in our testing. And at 4K (3840x2160), Performance mode delivers gains of 2-3X, enabling even GeForce RTX 2060 gamers to run at max settings at a playable framerate.

While the original implementation of DLSS in Control boosted performance and provided great image quality across most scenes, it tended to struggle in areas with objects in motion. In contrast, DLSS 2.0 is able to handle these cases much more effectively as seen in the image of a spinning fan below.

Images captured at 1080p using DLSS 2.0’s Quality Mode

The latest version of DLSS also improves image quality where the details are a bit more subtle. The following images show additional examples of improvements from the original version of DLSS to the updated version of DLSS 2.0.

Images captured at 1440p using DLSS 2.0’s Quality Mode

Elsewhere, text on seals and other detail is similarly improved, enhancing image quality and fidelity.

Images captured at 1440p using DLSS 2.0’s Quality Mode

And flat textured game elements, such as posters and the map below, also see noticeable improvements to clarity and sharpness

Images captured at 1080p using DLSS 2.0’s Quality Mode

To get DLSS 2.0 for Control, download and install our newest Game Ready Driver, and on March 26th download a new Control game update. Enable DLSS in-game, select a display resolution, and then a DLSS Rendering Resolution, equivalent to the Quality, Balanced and Performance modes seen in other DLSS 2.0 titles.

Deliver Us The Moon

KeokeN Interactive’s space and Moon-based adventure, Deliver Us The Moon, added ray-traced effects and DLSS 2.0 late last year, boosting its beauty and performance.

“We never expected the image quality in Deliver Us The Moon to increase when DLSS was enabled, but that is exactly what we experienced,” said Koen Deetman, CEO and Game Director at KeokeN Interactive. “This coupled with real-time ray tracing, and the huge performance boost from DLSS, gives our players the ultimate Deliver Us The Moon experience without any compromises.”

Deliver Us The Moon Adds Stunning Ray-Traced Effects and NVIDIA DLSS

Performance leaps by 60% in a single bound with NVIDIA DLSS 2.0 enabled in Deliver Us The Moon

Throughout the game, DLSS 2.0 delivers image quality on par with native resolution gameplay utilizing Deliver Us The Moon’s built-in Temporal Anti-Aliasing technique. Under closer examination, DLSS 2.0 even shows subtle improvements, with better fidelity on railings and other fine detail:

Deliver Us The Moon Adds Stunning Ray-Traced Effects and NVIDIA DLSS

In other instances, DLSS 2.0 delivers clear improvements, such as on intricate cyclone fencing, which boasts better image quality and superior temporal stability (clarity while the player’s view is moving).

Deliver Us The Moon Adds Stunning Ray-Traced Effects and NVIDIA DLSS

And on the game’s many computer displays and surfaces with miniscule text, DLSS 2.0 shows more detail at a greater level of clarity.

NVIDIA DLSS In Deliver Us The Moon: Fortuna

MechWarrior 5: Mercenaries

Piranha Games’ MechWarrior 5: Mercenaries is the latest game to add NVIDIA DLSS 2.0, and as in other DLSS-enhanced titles, performance improves dramatically, with gains of up to 75% recorded when using Quality mode:

“NVIDIA DLSS 2.0 basically gives our players a free performance boost, without sacrificing image quality” said Russ Bullock, President at Piranha Games. “It was also super easy to implement with NVIDIA’s new SDK, so it was a no brainer for us to add it to MechWarrior 5.”

Image quality is also improved with NVIDIA DLSS 2.0 in a number of cases. In the comparison below, captured at 1440p using Quality mode, DLSS adds sharp detail to the intricate parts of the ‘mech, showing the wear and tear. In addition, DLSS also stabilizes the cyclone fencing on top of the building, for better fidelity during gameplay.

In this example, captured at 1080p with Quality Mode, DLSS maintains sharp, clear image quality while boosting frame rates. Note also the fine line details on the barn and the increased fidelity of the fields of grain.

And finally, in this example captured at 1080p using Quality mode, DLSS restores the guard railing at the top of the wall, and sharpens smaller details both on the wall and the areas on either side of the gate.

Wolfenstein: Youngblood

Bethesda and Machine Games’ Wolfenstein: Youngblood is the first Vulkan-powered title to add ray tracing and DLSS 2.0.

Out of the gate Wolfenstein: Youngblood performs extremely well, and with DLSS 2.0 it gets even faster:

“It was critically important to us that our game standout both visually and from a performance perspective,” said Jim Kjellin CTO at MachineGames, developer of Wolfenstein: Youngblood. “Adding NVIDIA DLSS enabled us to get the best of both worlds, maximum performance with incredible image quality."

DLSS maintains detail, while also improving image quality in certain spots. In the example below, grating on the right side of the screen, and the pipes on the building in the center, are more defined and detailed with DLSS 2.0 enabled, compared to Wolfenstein: Youngblood’s highest-quality TAA mode:

Clear improvements are evident in other locations, too. For example, our second comparison sees detail increase significantly on the building to the right, and the antennas on the roof become clearer and more visible, improving the quality of the scene.

DLSS Continues to Learn

With the Turing architecture, we set out to change gaming with two big leaps in graphics: real-time ray tracing and NVIDIA DLSS. Ray tracing brings next-generation realism, while DLSS boosts framerates to help you enjoy those stunning ray-traced visuals.

With NVIDIA DLSS 2.0, we’ve made big leaps in image quality and performance, all while paving the way for easier integration so gamers can enjoy the technology in more and more games. And thanks to the power of AI, our DLSS network will continue to grow and improve over time.

We hope you get a chance to try out our latest work in MechWarrior 5 and Control this week, and stay tuned to GeForce.com for more news on upcoming DLSS games and advancements.